siachen glacier river

Because of the frequent fighting between the troops of India and Pakistan, Siachen Glacier is often referred to as the highest battlefield on earth. Kent L. Biringer, a researcher at Cooperative Monitoring Center of Sandia Labs suggested setting up Siachen Science Center, a high-altitude research centre where scientists and researchers from both the countries can carry out research activities[71] related to glaciology, geology, atmospheric sciences and other related fields. At an altitude of roughly 5,400 meters (17,700 feet), the Siachen Glacier in Kashmir is a forbidding place. [35][36] According to TIME magazine, India gained over 1,000 square miles (3,000 km2) in territory because of its 1980s military operations in Siachen. [56][57] As of 2007, the temperature rise at Siachen was estimated at 0.2-degree Celsius annually, causing melting, avalanches, and crevasses in the glacier. The Saltoro Ridge originates in the north from the Sia Kangri peak on the China border in the Karakoram range. [3][4] At 76 km (47 mi) long, it is the longest glacier in the Karakoram and second-longest in the world's non-polar areas. For the military conflict over this area, see, Location of the Siachen Glacier within the greater, From map: "THE DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES ON THIS MAP MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE", From map: "THE DELINEATION OF INTERNATIONAL BOUNDARIES MUST NOT BE CONSIDERED AUTHORITATIVE", Siachen Glacier is 76 km (47 mi) long; Tajikistan's, as is done when determining river lengths, second-longest in the world's non-polar areas, Defence Research and Development Organisation, International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation, International Union for Conservation of Nature, "The Himalayas War at the Top of the World", "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India – Opinions", "Siachen dispute: India and Pakistan's glacial fight", "India gained control over Siachen in 1984", "In landmark move, PM Imran unveils 'new political map' of Pakistan", "Life & death in world's highest combat zone", "Siachen deaths harden resolve to hold glacier: Army chief", "The Tribune, Chandigarh, India - Opinions", "Siachen height provides military depth India can't afford to lose | India News", "Story of Saltoro – From Ababeel to Meghdoot", "Avalanche buries Pakistan base; 117 soldiers feared dead", "Bleeding in Siachen: Pakistan losing 30 soldiers a year on highest battlefield", "Rescue operations at Gayari Sector after Pakistan avalanche, Photo Gallery", "33 Indian soldiers killed in Siachen since 2012: govt", "In Siachen, 869 Army men died battling the elements", "Kashmir's Siachen glacier a frigid outpost in India-Pakistan conflict", "Demilitarization of the Siachen Conflict Zone: Concepts for Implementation and Monitoring", "India must continue to hold on to Siachen: Bikram Singh, Army Chief General", "Army should stay put in Siachen, says General Bikram Singh", "846 Indian soldiers have died in Siachen since 1984", "Won't vacate Siachen, we can't trust Pakistan, says Manohar Parrikar | India News", "Here's how ISRO's space technology can save lives of soldiers at Siachen", "Siachen: While the battle continues to rage, no settlement is in sight", "Siachen glacier: Indian troops repulse major Pakistani offensive", "Army opposes Pakistan's demand for troop withdrawal from Siachen Glacier – Indian Express", "UN Map showing CFL as per Karachi Agreement – UN document number S/1430/Add.2", "Why India cannot afford to give up Siachen", "Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry for Glacier Movement Studies", "Exchange Siachen confrontation for peace", "Military activity leads to melting of Siachen glaciers", "Environmental peacemaking: Ending conflict between India and Pakistan on the Siachen Glacier through the creation of a transboundary peace park", "Siachen tragedy – day 5: Bad weather dogs avalanche search efforts", "16 Things You Should Know About India's Soldiers Defending Siachen", "Pakistan wants resolution of Siachen issue: Kayani", India hits back at Pak over Siachen issue, "Out of the box ideas for glacier: Siachen could become bio reserve or peace park", "Sites deferred by the Committee which may merit re-nomination", "US expert at Sandia wants Siachen converted into Science Centre", TIME Asia's cover story on Siachen Glacier (July 11, 2005), Video about the Conflict in the Siachen area and its consequences, Outside magazine article about Siachen battleground, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Kargil, Ladakh Autonomous Hill Development Council, Leh, Defence Institute of High Altitude Research, Eliezer Joldan Memorial College Leh, Ladakh, Students' Educational and Cultural Movement of Ladakh,, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles with unsourced statements from August 2012, Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 23:36. [75][76], "Siachen" redirects here. [3][14] Between 1984 and 1999, frequent skirmishes took place between India and Pakistan. [31][32] According to the present ground positions, relatively stable for over a decade, India maintains control over all of the 76 kilometres (47 mi) long Siachen Glacier and all of its tributary glaciers, as well as all the main passes and heights of the Saltoro Ridge[33] immediately west of the glacier, including Sia La, Bilafond La, Gyong La, Yarma La (6,100m), and Chulung La (5,800m). For half a century, it has been the one known Alaskan glacier to withstand the effects of climate change—until now. [22] In December 2015, Indian Union Minister of State for Defence Rao Inderjit Singh said in a written reply in the Lok Sabha that a total of 869 Army personnel have lost their lives on the Siachen glacier due to climatic conditions and environmental and other factors till date since the Army launched Operation Meghdoot in 1984. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in the Indian region of Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. Sometimes described as a white snake, the Siachen Glacier is more than 70 kilometers long. [54] In the twenty-nine-year period 1929–1958, well before the military occupation, the glacial retreat was recorded to be about 914 meters. Siachen Glacier was formally known as the SaicherGharni. The glaciers melting water is the main source of water for the Nubra River, which further falls into the Shyok River. [58], The waste produced by the troops stationed there is dumped in the crevasses of the glacier. It almost forms a triangle between India, China, and some territory claimed by Pakistan. In the previous year, the President of India, Abdul Kalam became the first head of state to visit the area. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in the Indian region of Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. [70] In September 2003, the governments of India and Pakistan were urged by the participants of 5th World Parks Congress held at Durban, to establish a peace park in the Siachen region to restore the natural biological system and protect species whose lives are at risk. The beauty of the glacier can be savoured through a good pair of binoculars. To support the troops, glacial ice has been cut and melted with chemicals. [49], The glacier was uninhabited before 1984, and the presence of thousands of troops since then has introduced pollution and melting on the glacier. "Sia" in the Balti language refers to the rose family plant widely dispersed in the region. Siachen glacier is a source to Nubra river which later joins Shyok river. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the University of Maryland’s Global Land Cover Facility. The Siachen base camp is situated at the snout of the glacier, on the bank of the river Nubra, at a height of 12,000 feet above sea level. The Second sub-ridge from KK Ridge is the Saltoro, West of the Siachen Glacier/ Nubra River, on which the Indian Army units are deployed. The Indus is used for drinking and irrigation. In the scene, snow and ice cover most of the jagged peaks of the Himalaya Mountains. Prior to 1984, neither country had any military forces in this area. [6][7][8][9] Pakistan maintains a territorial claim over the Siachen Glacier[10] and controls the region west of Saltoro Ridge, lying west of the glacier,[11] with Pakistani posts located 3,000 ft below more than 100 Indian posts on the ridge.[12][13]. Landsat 7 took this picture on May 18, 2001. Better connectivity in Ladakh would certainly bring tourists in large numbers.” The looping medial moraines on Tajikistan’s Bivachny glacier offer a clue of periods when it surged rapidly forward. Land [74], Sandia National Laboratories organised conferences where military experts and environmentalists from both India and Pakistan and also from other countries were invited to present joint papers. It is predicted that the glaciers of the Siachen region will be reduced to about one-fifth of their 2011 size by 2035. Mountaineers who visited the area while on climbing expeditions witnessed large amount of garbage, empty ammunition shells, parachutes etc. At an altitude far too high to support a forest, the bare mountainous surfaces appear in varying shades of beige. [3] U.S. and Pakistani maps in the 1970s and 1980s consistently showed a dotted line from NJ9842 (the northernmost demarcated point of the India-Pakistan cease-fire line, also known as the Line of Control) to the Karakoram Pass, which India believed to be a cartographic error and in violation of the Shimla Agreement. Siachen Glacier With a vast snowfield in the center, sides strewn with rocks and boulders and a length of about 72-km, Siachen is known as the largest glacier in the world outside the Polar Regions. Thus the name Siachen refers to a land with an abundance of roses. The glacier's region is the highest battleground on Earth,[66] where Pakistan and India have fought intermittently since April 1984. The Indian Army was recommending opening Siachen area for tourists for a long time and finally, the official announcement was made by the defence minister Rajnath Singh on October 21, 2019. "Chun" refers to any object found in abundance. The glacier's melting waters are the main source of the Nubra River in the Indian region of Ladakh, which drains into the Shyok River. The Shyok then joins the 3,000 km-long Indus river which flows through Pakistan. [51] The Indian army is said to have planned a "Green Siachen, Clean Siachen" campaign to airlift the garbage from the glacier, and to use biodigestors for biodegradable waste in the absence of oxygen and freezing temperatures. In 2012, Chief of Army Staff of the Indian Army General Bikram Singh said that the Indian Army should stay in the region for strategic advantages, and because a "lot of blood has been shed" by Indian armed personnel for Siachen. [68] Ignoring protests from Pakistan, India maintains that it does not need anyone's approval to send trekkers to Siachen, in what it says is essentially its own territory. Which continent has largest non polar ice caps? [38] As per official records, only 220 Indian soldiers have been killed by enemy bullets since 1984 in Siachen area. Acquired in 2001 and 2010, these natural-color images show substantial retreat in the Jakobshavn Glacier. Land The naming of the glacier itself, or at least its currency, is attributed to Tom Longstaff. The Glacier’s melting waters are the main source of the River Nubra in India, which drains into the River Shyok. Glaciers can merge together like rivers, and that is the case here. In 1984, India launched Operation Meghdoot, a military operation that gave India control over all of the Siachen Glacier, including its tributaries. However, after the Pakistani incursions during the Kargil War in 1999, India abandoned plans to withdraw from Siachen without official recognition of the current line of control by Pakistan, wary of further Pakistani incursions if they vacate the Siachen Glacier posts without such recognition. [5] It falls from an altitude of 5,753 m (18,875 ft) above sea level at its head at Indira Col on the China border down to 3,620 m (11,875 ft) at its terminus. It means the place of roses – Sia (rose), Chen (place of). [citation needed], Dumping of non-biodegradable waste in large quantities and the use of arms and ammunition have considerably affected the ecosystem of the region. [24][25][26], Aside from the Indian and Pakistani military presence, the glacier region is unpopulated. Together with some 18,000 other glaciers, it forms the heart of the Indus River Basin. Siachen Glacier can easily be approached via Skardu in Ladakh. After that present Prime Minister Narendra Modi also visited this place. Such is … [15][16] Indian troops under Operation Meghdoot pre-empted Pakistan's Operation Ababeel by just one day to occupy most of the dominating heights on Saltoro Ridge to the west of Siachen Glacier. The idea of declaring the Siachen region a "Peace Park" was presented by environmentalists and peace activists in part to preserve the ecosystem of the region badly affected by the military presence. Image of the Day [51] The study of satellite images of the glacier showed that the glacier is retreating at a rate of about 110 meters a year and that the glacier size has decreased by almost 35 percent. Issue of Wuller Lake dam on the River Jehlum was contested by Pakistan, Kargil conflict of 1999, Attack on Indian Parliament on 13 December, 2001 and so on. Prime Minister Manmohan Singh became the first Indian Prime Minister to visit the area, during which he called for a peaceful resolution of the problem. In Kashmir Conflict Zone, The Glacier Is The Enemy It's been years since shots were fired on the Siachen glacier, where troops from Pakistan and India face off. [17][18] However, more soldiers have died from the harsh weather conditions in the region than from combat. [59] About 1000 kilograms of waste is produced and dumped in glacial crevasses daily by the Indian forces. Snow and Ice.

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